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[源码] 使用ffmpeg的API实现从视频抽出图像生成图片

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发表于 2016-8-17 13:50:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
群里不少人问使用ffmpeg的api截图的代码,
其实流程很简单

1. 打开文件
2. 解封装
3. 读packets
4. 解码
5. 转换pixfmt
6. 编码
7. 封装
8. 写入文件

代码如下
[C] 纯文本查看 复制代码
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>

#include <libavutil/imgutils.h>
#include <libavutil/samplefmt.h>
#include <libavutil/avassert.h>
#include <libavutil/channel_layout.h>
#include <libavutil/opt.h>
#include <libavutil/mathematics.h>
#include <libavutil/timestamp.h>
#include <libavformat/avformat.h>
#include <libswscale/swscale.h>
#include <libswresample/swresample.h>

#define STREAM_DURATION   10.0
#define STREAM_FRAME_RATE 25 /* 25 images/s */
#define STREAM_PIX_FMT    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ422P /* default pix_fmt */
#define SCALE_FLAGS SWS_BILINEAR //SWS_BICUBIC

// a wrapper around a single output AVStream
typedef struct OutputStream {
    AVStream *st;
    AVCodecContext *enc;
    /* pts of the next frame that will be generated */
    int64_t next_pts;
    AVFrame *frame;
    AVFrame *tmp_frame;
    struct SwsContext *sws_ctx;
    struct SwrContext *swr_ctx;
} OutputStream;


static void log_packet(const AVFormatContext *fmt_ctx, const AVPacket *pkt)
{
    AVRational *time_base = &fmt_ctx->streams[pkt->stream_index]->time_base;

    printf("pts:%s pts_time:%s dts:%s dts_time:%s duration:%s duration_time:%s stream_index:%d\n",
           av_ts2str(pkt->pts), av_ts2timestr(pkt->pts, time_base),
           av_ts2str(pkt->dts), av_ts2timestr(pkt->dts, time_base),
           av_ts2str(pkt->duration), av_ts2timestr(pkt->duration, time_base),
           pkt->stream_index);
}

static void close_stream(AVFormatContext *oc, OutputStream *ost)
{
    avcodec_free_context(&ost->enc);
    av_frame_free(&ost->frame);
    av_frame_free(&ost->tmp_frame);
    sws_freeContext(ost->sws_ctx);
    swr_free(&ost->swr_ctx);
}


static AVFrame *alloc_picture(enum AVPixelFormat pix_fmt, int width, int height)
{
    AVFrame *picture;
    int ret;

    picture = av_frame_alloc();
    if (!picture)
        return NULL;

    picture->format = pix_fmt;
    picture->width  = width;
    picture->height = height;

    /* allocate the buffers for the frame data */
    ret = av_frame_get_buffer(picture, 32);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate frame data.\n");
        exit(1);
    }

    return picture;
}


static int write_frame(AVFormatContext *fmt_ctx, const AVRational *time_base, AVStream *st, AVPacket *pkt)
{
    /* rescale output packet timestamp values from codec to stream timebase */
    av_packet_rescale_ts(pkt, *time_base, st->time_base);
    pkt->stream_index = st->index;

    /* Write the compressed frame to the media file. */
    log_packet(fmt_ctx, pkt);
    return av_interleaved_write_frame(fmt_ctx, pkt);
}
static AVFrame *get_video_frame(OutputStream *ost)
{
    AVCodecContext *c = ost->enc;

    /* check if we want to generate more frames */
    if (av_compare_ts(ost->next_pts, c->time_base, 10, (AVRational){ 1, 1 }) >= 0)
        return NULL;

    if (!ost->sws_ctx) {
        ost->sws_ctx = sws_getContext(c->width, c->height,
                                      AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P,
                                      c->width, c->height,
                                      c->pix_fmt,
                                      SCALE_FLAGS, NULL, NULL, NULL);
        if (!ost->sws_ctx) {
            fprintf(stderr,
                    "Could not initialize the conversion context\n");
            exit(1);
        }
    }
    sws_scale(ost->sws_ctx,
              (const uint8_t * const *)ost->tmp_frame->data, 
              ost->tmp_frame->linesize,
              0, c->height, 
              ost->frame->data, 
              ost->frame->linesize);
    ost->frame->pts = ost->next_pts++;
    return ost->frame;
}


/*
 * encode one video frame and send it to the muxer
 * return 1 when encoding is finished, 0 otherwise
 */
static int write_video_frame(AVFormatContext *oc, OutputStream *ost)
{
    int ret;
    AVCodecContext *c;
    AVFrame *frame;
    int got_packet = 0;
    AVPacket pkt = { 0 };

    c = ost->enc;
    frame = get_video_frame(ost);
    av_init_packet(&pkt);

    /* encode the image */
    ret = avcodec_encode_video2(c, &pkt, frame, &got_packet);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Error encoding video frame: %s\n", av_err2str(ret));
        exit(1);
    }

    if (got_packet) {
        ret = write_frame(oc, &c->time_base, ost->st, &pkt);
    } else {
        ret = 0;
    }

    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Error while writing video frame: %s\n", av_err2str(ret));
        exit(1);
    }

    return (frame || got_packet) ? 0 : 1;
}


static void open_video(AVFormatContext *oc, AVCodec *codec, OutputStream *ost, AVDictionary *opt_arg)
{
    int ret;
    AVCodecContext *c = ost->enc;
    AVDictionary *opt = NULL;

    av_dict_copy(&opt, opt_arg, 0);

    /* open the codec */
    ret = avcodec_open2(c, codec, &opt);
    av_dict_free(&opt);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not open video codec: %s\n", av_err2str(ret));
        exit(1);
    }

    /* allocate and init a re-usable frame */
    ost->frame = alloc_picture(c->pix_fmt, c->width, c->height);
    if (!ost->frame) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate video frame\n");
        exit(1);
    }

    /* copy the stream parameters to the muxer */
    ret = avcodec_parameters_from_context(ost->st->codecpar, c);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not copy the stream parameters\n");
        exit(1);
    }
}


/* Add an output stream. */
static void add_stream(OutputStream *ost, AVFormatContext *oc, AVCodec **codec, enum AVCodecID codec_id)
{
    AVCodecContext *c;

    /* find the encoder */
    *codec = avcodec_find_encoder(codec_id);
    if (!(*codec)) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not find encoder for '%s'\n", avcodec_get_name(codec_id));
        exit(1);
    }

    ost->st = avformat_new_stream(oc, NULL);
    if (!ost->st) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate stream\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    ost->st->id = oc->nb_streams-1;
    c = avcodec_alloc_context3(*codec);
    if (!c) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not alloc an encoding context\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    ost->enc = c;

    switch ((*codec)->type) {
        case AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO:
            c->codec_id = codec_id;
            c->bit_rate = 400000;
            c->width    = 640;
            c->height   = 480;
            ost->st->time_base = (AVRational){ 1, STREAM_FRAME_RATE };
            c->time_base       = ost->st->time_base;
            c->gop_size      = 12; /* emit one intra frame every twelve frames at most */
            c->pix_fmt       = STREAM_PIX_FMT;
            break;

        default:
            break;
    }
}



int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int ret = 0;
    int have_video = 0;
    int encode_video = 0;
    int stream_index = 0;
    int got_frame = 0;
    char *src_filename = argv[1];
    char *filename = argv[2];

    AVStream *st;
    OutputStream video_st = { 0 };
    AVOutputFormat *out_fmt;
    AVFormatContext *oc;
    AVFormatContext *ic;
    AVCodec *video_codec;
    AVCodec *dec;
    AVCodecContext *dec_ctx = NULL;
    AVDictionary *opt = NULL;
    AVFrame *frame = NULL;
    AVPacket pkt;

    av_register_all();

    /***********input**************/
    /* open input file, and allocate format context */
    if (avformat_open_input(&ic, src_filename, NULL, NULL) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not open source file %s\n", src_filename);
        exit(1);
    }

    /* retrieve stream information */
    if (avformat_find_stream_info(ic, NULL) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not find stream information\n");
        exit(1);
    }

    ret = av_find_best_stream(ic, AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO, -1, -1, NULL, 0);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not find %s stream in input file '%s'\n", av_get_media_type_string(AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO), src_filename);
        return ret;
    } else {
        stream_index = ret;
        st = ic->streams[stream_index];

        /* find decoder for the stream */
        dec_ctx = st->codec;
        dec = avcodec_find_decoder(dec_ctx->codec_id);
        if (!dec) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Failed to find %s codec\n", av_get_media_type_string(AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO));
            return AVERROR(EINVAL);
        }

        if ((ret = avcodec_open2(dec_ctx, dec, NULL)) < 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Failed to open %s codec\n", av_get_media_type_string(AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO));
            return ret;
        }
    }

    /* dump input information to stderr */
    av_dump_format(ic, 0, src_filename, 0);

    frame = av_frame_alloc();
    if (!frame) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate frame\n");
        ret = AVERROR(ENOMEM);
        return ret;
    }

    /* initialize packet, set data to NULL, let the demuxer fill it */
    av_init_packet(&pkt);
    pkt.data = NULL;
    pkt.size = 0;

    /***********output*************/
    /* allocate the output media context */
    avformat_alloc_output_context2(&oc, NULL, NULL, filename);
    if (!oc) {
        printf("Could not deduce output format from file extension: using MPEG.\n");
        avformat_alloc_output_context2(&oc, NULL, "mpeg", filename);
    }
    if (!oc)
        return 1;

    out_fmt = oc->oformat;
    /* Add the audio and video streams using the default format codecs
     * and initialize the codecs. */
    if (out_fmt->video_codec != AV_CODEC_ID_NONE) {
        add_stream(&video_st, oc, &video_codec, out_fmt->video_codec);
        have_video = 1;
        encode_video = 1;
    }
    open_video(oc, video_codec, &video_st, opt);
    av_dump_format(oc, 0, filename, 1);

    /* open the output file, if needed */
    if (!(out_fmt->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE)) {
        ret = avio_open(&oc->pb, filename, AVIO_FLAG_WRITE);
        if (ret < 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Could not open '%s': %s\n", filename, av_err2str(ret));
            return 1;
        }
    }

    /* Write the stream header, if any. */
    ret = avformat_write_header(oc, &opt);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Error occurred when opening output file: %s\n", av_err2str(ret));
        return 1;
    }

    av_seek_frame(ic, -1, 90000000, AVSEEK_FLAG_BACKWARD);
    while (av_read_frame(ic, &pkt) >= 0) {
        AVPacket orig_pkt = pkt;
        if (pkt.size > 0) {
            if (pkt.stream_index == stream_index) {
                ret = avcodec_decode_video2(dec_ctx, frame, &got_frame, &pkt);
                if (ret < 0) {
                    fprintf(stderr, "Error decoding video frame (%s)\n", av_err2str(ret));
                    return ret;
                }

                if (got_frame) {
                    video_st.tmp_frame = frame;
                    encode_video = write_video_frame(oc, &video_st);
                }
            }
        }
        av_packet_unref(&orig_pkt);
    }

    av_write_trailer(oc);
    if (have_video)
        close_stream(oc, &video_st);
    if (!(out_fmt->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE))
        avio_closep(&oc->pb);
    avformat_free_context(oc);

    return ret;
}


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发表于 2017-3-20 18:05:24 | 显示全部楼层
输出文件应该怎么写 , 随便一种图片的格式都可以吗
回复 支持 反对

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-21 12:21:38 | 显示全部楼层
halcyon 发表于 2017-3-20 18:05
输出文件应该怎么写 , 随便一种图片的格式都可以吗

[AppleScript] 纯文本查看 复制代码
ffmpeg -h muxer=image2
可以看到
[AppleScript] 纯文本查看 复制代码
    Common extensions: bmp,dpx,jls,jpeg,jpg,ljpg,pam,pbm,pcx,pgm,pgmyuv,png,ppm,sgi,tga,tif,tiff,jp2,j2c,j2k,xwd,sun,ras,rs,im1,im8,im24,sunras,xbm,xface,pix,y.
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发表于 2017-9-12 16:18:31 | 显示全部楼层
有个地方想请教下楼主:如何设定截图的参数呢?比如截图的长、宽之类的
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 楼主| 发表于 2017-9-13 16:24:16 | 显示全部楼层
ziibinj 发表于 2017-9-12 16:18
有个地方想请教下楼主:如何设定截图的参数呢?比如截图的长、宽之类的

那需要调用缩放相关参数了,类似这样

[AppleScript] 纯文本查看 复制代码
    sws_ctx = sws_getContext(in->width, in->height, AV_PIX_FMT_ARGB, frame->width, frame->height, AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P, SCALE_FLAGS, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    out_sws_ctx = sws_getContext(in->width, in->height, AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P, frame->width, frame->height, AV_PIX_FMT_ARGB, SCALE_FLAGS, NULL, NULL, NULL);

    sws_scale(sws_ctx, (const uint8_t * const *)out->data, out->linesize, 0, out->height, frame->data, frame->linesize);
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